Since the 13th century Hijri (19th century AD), several movements were established to revive the Ummah but were all unsuccessful in their attempts. However, these movements had a strong influence over those who came after them to repeat the attempts. Upon scrutinizing these movements and their attempts for revival, one can conclude that the causes for their failure (from a structural point of view) are due to the following four factors:
1. The movements were established upon a general undefined idea (fikrah), which was vague, or unclear. In addition, the idea lacked focus, purity, and clarity.
2. The movements did not define a method (Tareeqah) to implement their idea; rather, they proceeded through improvised and twisted means. Furthermore, their means were undefined and ambiguous.
3. The movements relied upon individuals who lacked full awareness, and a well-focused determination. Individuals were driven solely by their desire or zeal to work.
4. The individuals carrying the responsibility of these movements did not have a correct bond amongst themselves. They were merely bound by being members in a structure that manifested itself in certain actions and titles.
Consequently, it was only natural for such movements to surge forward until their efforts and enthusiasm were exhausted, causing their activities to die down and they eventually became extinct. Other movements emerged thereafter, who followed the same pattern until they, too, became extinct. The failure of all these movements was only natural, because they were not based on a correct, clear and a defined idea. In addition, they did not have a correct method, they depended upon individuals who lacked awareness, and were not bound by a correct bond.